1851 “Canada Directory” vs Canada Census

Walling Map of Richmond 1863 courtesy GTHS
Wallings Map of Richmond 1863
courtesy GTHS

The 1851 “Province of Canada Directory”, which can be found in the Library and Archives Canada collection, provides us with a snapshot of the professional and trades people active in Richmond.  The Directory distinguishes between two Richmond Villages in Canada West.  Richmond #1 is our village in Carleton County while Richmond #2 is located in Middlesex County, 7 miles from Aylmer and 37 from London. Robert W. S. Mackay and his assistants compiled the Directory, which provides good information but also raises many questions.

Here are some examples. There is much debate as to the location of the Masonic Arms Hotel operated by Maria and Andrew Hill. Research seems to indicate that it was located on Strachan St. at or near the corner of McBean St.  Some years after Andrew’s death in 1830, Mrs. Hill married Andrew Taylor and according to the 1851 census they were living in a frame house and Andrew was a farmer.  This Directory lists him as the proprietor of a “temperance inn” on lot 14 McBean St.  This is the site of the smokehouse.  Was this a new enterprise OR was the Masonic Arms renamed and had it been at this location (south of the Jock River) all along?  Only more research can answer this question.

The 3 buildings of George Lyons Estate on the low left corner are lots 18 &19 of Maitland St. 3 blocks east are the tradesmen on McBean in 1863 Walling Map
Although 12 years later, the landscape was much the same in 1863.  The 3 buildings of George Lyons’ Estate on the lower left corner are lots 18 & 19 of Maitland St.
3 blocks east are the tradesmen on McBean.
Wallings Map 1863

There seems to be a commercial centre south of the Jock River.  George Lyon had a mill at the dam he constructed on the Jock River at the convergence of Ottawa St. and Maitland/Fortune Streets.  It seems that small businesses grew up east of that area & those on lots 17, 18 & 19 Maitland were on land owned by Mr. Lyon.  Among the tradesmen were James O’Connor, waggonmaker, 17 Maitland St. (O’Connor bought land and moved his business to the Park lot on the west side of McBean Street at the intersection of Ottawa St. in 1855); S. Tracy, blacksmith, 18 Maitland St.; and Alex Stewart, carder and fuller, 19 Maitland St. Three blocks further east on McBean St. were three more tradesmen: C. McGuire, bootmaker at 15 McBean St.; John Carney, builder and framer, 18 McBean St.; and D. Mathewson, tailor, 19 McBean St.  The Directory provides the earliest source we have uncovered which details this area.

Most addresses correspond to lot numbers (which are numbered north to south along each street), but there are some exceptions.  Where were 6 Martin St. and 10 Strachan St.?  There are no lots carrying the names of these streets.

In the introduction to the volume, the author states that only subscribers have their names capitalized.  Thus it appears that Dr. Evans is the only subscriber from Richmond.

We thought it might be informative to compare the Directory entries with those on the 1851 census (which was not actually completed until 1852).

Below is a transcription of the Directory with the census data in brackets after each entry. In the census data, a person’s name is followed by their occupation, age and type of residence). When work shops or stores are named, it is not clear if they were attached to the house.  Following the transcription of the data, is a copy of the original Directory Entry and at the end of the article you will find links to online versions of both the Directory and Census.

Richmond C.W.

 A Village situated in the Township of Goulbourn, County of Carleton, C.W. – distant from Bytown, 21 miles – usual stage fare, 5s – distant from Perth, 30 miles, from Kemptville, 17 miles, – the division court for the County of Carleton is held here once in two months.

 Alphabetical List of professions, Trades etc.

Evans, R.W., M.D. physician and surgeon, coroner, and medical referee Colonial Life Assurance Co., 6 Martin st. (R.W. Evans, surgeon, 33, 1½ story – sided log house)

Andrews, Rev. M., Wesleyan. (not on census)

Brown, George, general merchant, 9 McBean st. (George Brown, merchant, 33, 1½ story – frame house & 1 store)

Baggs, John, merchant tailor, 5 Murray st. (John Baggs, tailor, 37, 1½ story – sided log house)

Butler, William, tanner & currier, 17 Maitland st. (William Butler, tanner, 24, 1½ story – sided log house & 1 tannery shop)

Bryson, John A., teacher of grammar school (John A. Bryson, school teacher, 27, 1 story – sided log house)

Bennet, M., veterinary surgeon and blacksmith, 17 McBean st. (Matthew Bennet, black smith, 1 story – sided log house & 1 work shop)

Birtch, Thomas, bootmaker, 6 Murray st. (Thomas Birtch, farmer, 32, 1 story – sided log house)

Birtch, W., temperance house, 12 East McBean st. (William Birtch, cord wainer, 27, 1 story – sided log house & 1 tavern)

Brennan, P., cooper, 14 Fortune st. (Patrick Brennan, Cooper, 35, 1 story – round log house)

Colonial Life Assurance Co., George Brown, agent 9 McBean st.

Cooper, P., upholsterer, 5 Cockburn st. (Peter Cooper, cabinet maker, 34, 1 story – sided log house)

Copeland, J., tavern, 8 Perth St. (James Copeland, joiner, 36, 1½ story – sided log house & 1 tavern)

Carron, J., millwright, 4 Cockburn st. (John Carron, miller, 55, 1 story –  sided log house)

Carney, John, builder and framer, 18 McBean st. (John Carney, labourer, 62, 1 story – round log house) OR John Carney, labourer, 29, 1 story – sided log house)

Copeland, W., bootmaker, 10 Fowler st. (William Copeland, cord wainer, 64, 1 story – sided log house)

Coutch, Mark, tailor, 14 Fowler st. (not on census)

Crawford, Diana, bonnetmaker, Queen st. (Diana Crawford, milliner, 62, 1 story – sided log house)

Evans, Rev. D., Presbyterian 6 Martin st. (not on census)

Eastman, W., blacksmith, 3 McBean st. (William Eastman, black smith, 33, 1 story – sided log house & 1 work shop)

Falls, Mrs., innkeeper, 1 Cockburn st. (Nancy Falls, widow – no occupation, 31, 1 story – sided log house)

Fitzgerald, G., clerk, 3 Hamilton st. (Garrett Fitzgerald, clerk, 58, 1 story – sided log house)

Flood, Rev. John, Church of England (Rev’d John Flood, minister, 40, 1½ story – stone house)

Fournier, A., carpenter & joiner, 12 West Lennox st. (Anthony Furney, joiner, 56, 1 story – sided log house)

Hall, A., bootmaker, 4 East McBean st. (Adam Hall, cord wainer, 36, 1 story – sided log house)

Hamilton, R., bootmaker, 1 West Lennox st. (Robert Hamilton, cord wainer, 34, 1 story – sided log house)

Hefferon, P., tailor, 9 East Maitland st. (Patrick Heffernan (Heffernon), tailor, 50, 1 story – sided log house)

Lyon, W.R.R., general merchant & postmaster, 11 East McBean st. (William R. R. Lyon, merchant, 32, 2 story stone house & one shop)

Lyon, George, miller and distiller, 17, 18, 19, Fortune st. (deceased in 1851 not on census)

Lewis, Thomas, general merchant, 10 Strachan st. (Thomas Lewis, merchant, 30, 2 story – log house & shop)

McElroy, P., general merchant and N.P.,10 West McBean st. (P. McElroy, merchant, 48, 1½ story – log and frame house & shop & Orange Lodge)

McLean, James, innkeeper, 9 West Fowler st. (James McLean, no occupation, 59, 1½ story – sided log house & tavern )

Miller, Thomas, bootmaker, 5 McBean st. (Thomas Miller, cord wainer, 39, 1 story – sided log house)

McGuire, C.,  bootmaker, 15 West McBean st. (Constantine McGuire, cord wainer, 41, 1 story – sided log house)

Mathewson, D., tailor, 19 McBean st. (Donald Matheson, tailor, 66, 1 story  – sided log house)

Mooney, R., tinsmith, 10 Lennox st. (Robert Mooney, tinsmith, 1 story  – sided log house)

O’Connell, Rev. P. Roman Catholic. (Rev. Peter O’Connell, Priest, 42, 1½ story frame house)

O’Connor, James, waggonmaker, 17 Maitland st. (James O’Connor, waggon maker, 30, 1 story – round log house)

Patterson, Henry, cabinetmaker, 6 McBean st. (not on census)

Robinson, _____, saddler, 10 West Lennox st. (William Robinson, saddler, 30, 1 story  – log house)

Ross, H., waggonmaker, Perth st. (Hugh Ross, waggon maker, 48, 1 story – sided log house)

Scollen, George, grocer, 6 West Lennox st. (George Scollen, labourer, 65, 1 story – round log house)

Scott, James, carpenter, 8 Lennox st. (James Scott, joiner, 28, 1½ story – sided log house)

Scott James, sen., carpenter, Perth st. (James Scott Sen., joiner, 38, 1 story – sided log house)

Stewart, Alex. carder and fuller, 19 Maitland st. (not on census)

Stewart, Thomas, bootmaker, 4 Murray st. (Thomas Steward, cord wainer, 45, 1 story – sided log house)

Stewart, Samuel, waggonmaker, 3 Cockburn st. (Samuel Steward, farmer, 51 1 story – round log house)

Spearman, A., bailiff, 7 Cockburn st. (Andrew Spearman, labourer, 63, 1 story – sided log house)

Torney, Jno., tanner & currier, 13 East Fowler st. (John Torney, tanner, 56, 2 story – sided log house)

Tutton, Mrs., dressmaker and milliner, 6 McBean st. (Jane Totten, dressmaker, 30, 1½ story – sided log house)

Tracy, S., blacksmith, 18 Maitland st. (Stephen Tracy, black smith, 40, 1 story – round log house & work shop)

Taylor, A., temperance inn, 14 McBean st. (Andrew Taylor, farmer, 43, 2 story – frame house)

VILLAGE COUNCILLORS  – W.R.R. Lyon, reeve; Dr. Evans, George Brown, Thomas Lewis, and P. McElroy, councillors; Garrett Fitzgerald, clerk and treasurer

Canada Directory, 1851
Canada Directory, 1851


Canada Directory 1851” Collections Canada

Canada Census 1851”  Collections Canada

Wallings, H. F. “Richmond”  Excerpt of Carleton County Map. 1863. in Goulbourn Township Historical Society Map Collection.






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